Right now we are facing fundamental changes in the world economy as a whole, and naturally the impact on the Spanish economy is extraordinary. One of the fundamental novelties is what refers to the migratory phenomenon. In this contribution, Professor Sole Puig, Professor of Sociology at the University of Barcelona, presents very valuable, extraordinary news not only of global, but of Spain in particular. Suffice it to mention that in 2021 the ILO “estimates that there will be approximately 175 million migrant workers in the world, which is much higher than the 150 million estimated in 2013” (p. 27). And in the case of Spain, the data is also impressive: “Immigrants who arrived in Spain illegally so far in 2021, more than 28,700 people, 51% more than the previous year”, and this is a supplementary index that measures globally Is. The number of consolidated immigrants to Spain refers to a change that has occurred since the 1970s, because until then, Spain was a typical country of emigration first to the Americas and later to Europe.
Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, Madrid, 2022/159 p.
And an important fact that is indicated on p. 42: “On the other hand, an increase in self-employment among immigrants as a result of the lack of employment as wage earners”. Another complementary piece of information is that “involving many non-EU women … the housework care activities greatly support the labor participation of native women in productive activities commensurate with their level of academic or vocational training.” Naturally, it also matters a lot from an economic and social point of view.
It is interesting to note that the population of foreign origin is most concentrated in the most populous autonomous communities, such as Madrid, Catalonia, Andalusia and Valencian Communities. In these communities, expatriate projects that prioritize enjoying a quality of life associated with leisure and leisure (retired from Northern Europe) oriented toward working life (non-EU citizens, mostly from Latin America and North Africa) corresponds with overseas projects. The concentration reaches 80% of immigrants in urban areas, compared to only 20% living in rural areas, because “the urban environment provides more opportunities for life, a greater supply of goods and services, and better job prospects” (p. 57) . It should be added (p. 58) that “in general, for practically all economic sectors, the unemployment rate of immigrants is higher than that of the native population”. «In 2018, the unemployment rate for people of foreign nationality (including dual nationality) is 21.5%, compared to 14.1% for Spanish nationals.” Therefore, the question arises whether “discrimination in hiring immigrants exists in Spain, As in many other European and Western countries, which make it clear, in particular, on the basis of cultural and, in particular, ethnic minorities, “the perceived inability and inability of immigrants to perform certain productive tasks.” select workers following their own psychological patterns of prejudices and stereotypes” (p. 58).
And as mentioned, it should be noted that in Spain, in addition to immigrants dedicated to contributing to our active population, there are also people from the European Union who are retired, who choose to reside in Spain, And people also labor with an irregular position. It has been indicated, through a qualitative study on foreigners living in Spain over the age of 50 – seasonally or permanently on the Levantine, Andalusian and two Spanish archipelago coasts, and with property in the country of origin – that they are important constitute the nucleus that “through their daily social interactions, they form a level of confidence in Spanish institutions and vote in municipal elections”.
There are also immigrants in irregular labor conditions, that is, “foreigners who do not meet the regular administrative requirements of a work contract, residence or residence.” At times, the irregularity is the result of an unexpected stay in Spain, “that is, of staying … once the entry visa has expired, as tourists” (p. 82).
Professor Sole Puig also highlights on the pages what happens to the growing problem of populism, in relation to possible opposition to the arrival of immigrants. 97-107. These new political currents have a clear impact with respect to the migrant phenomenon, and are located on the extreme left – in the Spanish government, right now, to hold a remarkable political weight – and on the extreme right. Your analysis is invaluable.
Finally, it uncovers important data about the degree of widespread optimism – according to the continent of origin – that they have about the future of Spain and their particular professional future. On both issues, the greatest optimism has been shown by people in Asia and Latin America; And Africans are not optimistic at all or almost at all.
- Juan Velarde Fuertes He is Emeritus Professor of Applied Economics at Complutense University