Sinaloa presents a production model of low profitability in the grain and oilseed chains, derived from factors such as increasing the prices of fertilizers, energy, financing and inputs, thus raising production costs. Also, not having a support policy aimed at commercial agriculture to encourage its production; Moreover, the selling prices of grains depend on the international market, as we are in a commercial opening up with the volatility and inputs of these markets as well as its impact especially in these moments of crisis due to COVID-19. are submerged. and the Russo-Ukraine War conflict.
As a result of the COVID-19 crisis in 2021, mainly in the second half, a disproportionate increase in the price of natural gas led to an increase in nitrogen fertilizers, which is the basic raw material for these fertilizers. In Mexico, for example, ammonia rose 150 percent last year. The crisis was exacerbated by the Russo-Ukraine War, as these countries are among the main exporters of fertilizers, energy such as natural gas and oil, and foodstuffs such as wheat, oilseeds and corn.
Since Mexico is 68 percent dependent on fertilizer imports, all these increases are directly reflected in the cost of production of our crops. For example, corn cultivation in Sinaloa affected its cost of production by 35.5 percent. From one cycle to the next, a growth that we had not experienced in many years and that puts us in a complicated position for the future if this critical situation continues.
Considering the above, it is important to improve our production processes, especially in the concept of fertilization; Seeking not scarcity, but efficient use of fertilizers, answering the questions of when, how and how much to apply to achieve greater productivity and thereby profitability in grain production by reducing fertilizer dosage or increasing production to improve About efficient use and optimization of fertilizers.
Today this is possible, because there are studies and developments of such innovations that show amazing results in the case of efficient fertilization alone or integrated.
From a simple soil analysis which, in the hands of an agricultural science professional, allows us to plan a nutrition plan, to the use of value measurement sensors that allow us to make decisions; We go even further, using drones and satellites that can map images to models the application of variable doses of fertilization.
This is certainly possible if government institutions, research institutes and manufacturer organizations work as a team to develop technical components that can be transferred to producers, which is given; Since CIMMyT – MasAgro currently has research platforms in three farmer associations in Sinaloa (AARFS, AARSP and AARC), and this can be extended to other federations, to take advantage of such programs as through FIRA CAADES is promoting. Demonstration plots with a fertilization optimization system, which will ultimately finance and support interested growers with a percentage for acquisition of equipment for optimum fertilization.
According to the studies conducted, it is possible to expect up to 30 percent reduction in the amount of fertilizers, mainly nitrogen ones, contributing to maintaining or increasing productivity levels and reducing nitrous oxide emissions into the atmosphere.
So far this will be the first step for an efficient fertilization by applying variable dosages; The next stage is comprehensive nutrition; where it combines chemical fertilization with the use of organic and organic, solid and liquid fertilizers, such as vermicompost, leachates, biols, and microorganisms such as bacteria (mycorrhiza) among other techniques; That Fundación Production Sinaloa is already shifting production methods to groups of producers.
With these integral fertilization methods, it is possible to further reduce (not eliminate) the use of chemical fertilizers, especially those containing nitrogen, that have a positive impact on the environment.
As you can see, it is possible to be more efficient in the application of fertilizers as well as achieve sustainable agriculture in the grain production chain in Sinaloa.
Mars Vega Roman
CADES. President of